The COVID-19 crisis has put the health system under an extraordinary stress, raising questions on the amount of equipment and supplies available, as well as the organization of health and social care to meet the needs of hospitalization and intensive care units and their capacity to face emergencies of this dimension. In this context, the objectives of this project are, in the first place, to analyze the determinants of the trajectory of healthcare spending in Spain during the recent decades. Second, to analyze the differences in health expenditure regarding primary care, specialized care, pharmacy, etc. among regions, and within the health areas of each region. And thirdly, to study the causes and effects of regional differences on the quality of the services offered and the equality of access to them. In these three areas, the research will assess the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly with regard to the capacity of the health system to resist strong stress situations resulting from specific increases in the demand for services.