In this paper, we estimate the relative risk that drunk drivers pose on sober drivers, passengers and pedestrians, and quantify the external cost of drunk driving in Spain between 2004–2015. Eventually we arrive at the following conclusions. Firstly, we find the relative risk of drunk drivers causing a crash during the night to be between 2.7–3.9 times higher than that of sober drivers. Secondly, our results point to a decline in drunk driving offences alongside an increase in its punition, mainly after the implementation of the Penalty Points System for driving licenses in Spain on July 1st 2006. We estimate that drunk drivers should be fined by 1250€, in order to offset its external costs. Overall, our assessment indicates a downturn in the external costs of drunk driving over the last decade in Spain.
Rodríguez-López, J., Y.F. Rebollo y D. Mesa (2019). «Hidden figures behind two-vehicle crashes: An assessment of the risk and external costs of drunk driving in Spain». Accident Analysis & Prevention 127 (junio): 42-51.