Life tables are fundamental in providing a numerical representation of the status changes occurring within a population over time. This tool is generally applied to any demographic phenomenon in which, during a given time period, individuals within a population have a known probability of changing status.
Ivie researcher Francisco J. Goerlich and Rafael Pinilla have elaborated the biometric functions of the Life Tables for Spain and its regions, covering the period 1975-2013, as well as their disaggregation by large groups of cause of death. They have also calculated 4 demographic indicators for each year and geographic area:
- Average age of population (AGE)
- Average-age life expectancy (EVA)
- Life potential (PV)
- Life potential per capita (PVC)
The last two indicators are described in Goerlich and Pinilla (2005) and Goerlich and Soler (2012).
All this information is available to researchers and the interested public via the website.
The database contains period life tables with annual periods for Spain (complete and abridged by five-year groups up to a final open interval of 110 and over), its autonomous communities (abridged to a final open interval of 100 and over ), and provinces (abridged to a final open interval of 85 years and older). The first year is always considered separately. The demographic criteria is residence, and they are always calculated for the total population and for each sex separately.
For the population data tables, intercensal estimates are used. In June 2013, data for the 2002-2011 was updated taking into account the intercensal estimates published by the 2011 Census for this period. Thus all tables are final. In October 2015, the demographic data has been updated to 2014 using the population figures.
The data on deaths come from Vital Statistics. The micro data can be downloaded from the INE, and have been classified by age, period, generation (Lexis triangles) and groups of cause of death.
The biometric functions stored are 6 (they differ slightly from those currently published by the INE), and are described in Goerlich (2009, section 2.1, pg.-13-15).
- Age-specific mortality rate: M (mx) - Disaggregated by cause of death
- Probability of death: Q (qx) - Disaggregated by cause of death
- Survivors at exact age: L (lx) - Disaggregated by cause of death
- Deaths of the (fictitious) generation of the life table: D (dx) - Disaggregated by cause of death
- Person-years lived by the (fictitious) generation of the life table in the relevant age range: LL (Lx)
- Person-years remaining in the (fictitious) generation of the life table for individuals of age x (Tx)
- Life expectancy at exact age x: EV (ex)
The methodology follows strictly that described in the methods protocol of the Human Mortality Database (HMD), version 5 (Wilmoth, Andreev, Jdanov and Glei 2007), and is also described in Goerlich (2009). See Goerlich (2012) for a disaggregation by causes of death.
Three aspects that distinguish Ivie's Life table database from INE's: Ivie's data is homogenous since 1975; it is disaggregated by large groups of cause of death; and includes an additional demographic indicator: life potential.
In sum, this database consists of 22 PC-Axis files. Eight of the files contain biometric functions for Spain, its autonomous communities and provinces; six of them provide demographic indicators cited for the same geographic and temporal areas; and the other eight files contain biometric functions for the large groups of cause of death. The information can be obtained in map format by using the PX-MAP program. Data from the mapas.zip file must be decompressed inside the maps folder in the PX-MAP instalation directory.
To download files from the database you must agree to the following conditions:
Goerlich, F.J. y Pinilla, R (2009): "Tablas de Mortalidad para España y sus regiones: 1975-2006 y Esperanzas de Vida Libres de Discapacidad por sexo y Comunidad Autónoma: 2004-2006. Base de Datos y Principales Resultados", Monograph 2009-01, Ivie, Valencia, 80 pages.
National Institute of Statistics: "Vital Satistics". Madrid. INE
National Institute of Statistics: "Intercensus and Now Cast Population estimates". Madrid. INE
Press release (in Spanish). Datos de esperanza de vida al nacer y potencial de vida en España para el periodo 1975-2012 (07/03/2014)
Press release (in Spanish). Probabilidad de causas de muerte. Datos hasta 2010 (01/08/2012)
Press release (in Spanish). Probabilidad de causas de muerte (14/03/2012)
Goerlich, F. and Ivie (The Valencian Institute of Economic Research). Tablas de Mortalidad de España y sus Regiones. January 2013. Database available online: http://www.ivie.es/en/banco/tabmor/tabmor.php